Bio-herbicidal properties of sorghum and sunflower aqueous extracts against germination and seedling growth of dragon spurge (Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam.)

Title 
Bio-herbicidal properties of sorghum and sunflower aqueous extracts against germination and seedling growth of dragon spurge (Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam.) 
Publication Type 
Journal Article 
Authors 
Khaliq A, Matloob A, Tanveer A, Abbas RN, Khan MB 
Year of Publication 
2012 
Publisher 
Weed Science Society of Pakistan 
Volume 
18 
Journal 
Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research 
Issue 
Pagination 
137-148  
Date Published 
10/2012 
ISSN 
1815-1094 
Keywords 
Allelopathy, bio-herbicidal potential, Chickpea, dragon spurge, seed germination, Seedling growth, Sorghum, sunflower, weeds 
URL 
http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/20123331419.html;jsessionid=EA965A73BE9B0F74B4293B9965BFBB9D;jsessionid=03864E007E8F38521CADE70D31DCB1EA; http://www.cabi.org/cabdirect/FullTextPDF/2012/20123331419.pdf 
Abstract 

Chick pea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important pulse grown in winter as a predominantly rainfed crop in many regions of the world. Initially, it grows very slowly and is a poor weed competitor. A number of weed species infest chick pea crop and potential yield losses in chickpea due to such infestation range between 22-100% (Marwat et al., 2005). Such losses due to weed competition depend upon the type and density of weed species and their duration of association with crop. Dragon spurge (Euphorbia dracunculoides L.) is an important weed of chick pea (Marwat et al., 2004; Tanveer, 2008). Herbicides, as pendimethalin and s-metalochlor, though capable of providing fairly good control of dragon spurge, were phytotoxic to chick pea, causing chlorosis, reducing plant height and root and shoot biomass (Imran et al., 2009). Considering allelopathy as an ecologically sound weed management approach, bio-herbicidal potential of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) extracts were evaluated against germination and seedling growth of dragon spurge (Euphorbia dracunculoides L.). Different concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) of aqueous extracts, applied alone and in combination, were tested in a laboratory bioassay. Results revealed that germination of dragon spurge was delayed by sorghum and sunflower extracts applied alone or in combination and their different concentrations. Sorghum and sunflower aqueous extracts combined at 100% concentration inhibited seed germination 92%, while sole application of aqueous extract of sorghum was more inhibitory to dragon spurge germination (88%) than that of sunflower (80%). However at low concentrations (25 and 50%), sunflower aqueous extract performed better than the sorghum extract. All extracts concentrations exhibited a pronounced negative influence on early seedling growth of dragon spurge. Inhibition of shoot and root dry biomass by the different concentrations of the aqueous extracts was 53-86% and 49-79% for sorghum and 29-87% and 32-83% for sunflower. Their combination application inhibited shoot and root biomass 41-90% and 65-87%, respectively. The study established the bio-herbicidal potential of sorghum and sunflower aqueous extracts against dragon spurge. Their combination can be used as bio-herbicide for management of this weed.

 
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