Crop lead centers

Rice is the staple food for more than 3 billion people who eat it several times every day.

Rice is rich in nutrients and contains a number of vitamins and minerals. It is an excellent source of complex carbohydrates - the best source of energy. However, a lot of these nutrients are lost during milling and polishing, which turns brown rice into white rice by removing the outer rice husk and bran to reveal the white grain.

Biological information

Two species of rice are considered important as food species for humans: Oryza sativa, grown worldwide; and Oryza glaberrima, grown in parts of West Africa. Rice is primarily grown as pure inbred line varieties, but hybrid rice production is growing is China and other regions.

Both are grass species belonging to the tribe Orizeae of the Poaceae family. O. sativa is a self-pollinated diploid species with 12 pairs of chromosomes and a genome size of 389 Mbp. Two subspecies O. sativa ssp indica and japonica have been genome sequenced.


photos: © N. Palmer - CIAT


Crop database

To obtain the Central Database for Rice (which provides historical phenotyping data, germplasm information, trait information, and some genotyping data), download the Breeding Management System.

Data curators:

  • William Eusebio (IRRI)
  • Ibnou Dieng (AfricaRice)
  • Arturo Franco, Jairo Barano (CIAT)
  • Ramil Mauleon & Frances Nikki Borja [for Crop Ontology]


Molecular Resources for Rice Breeding

Germplasm Resources for Rice Breeding

  • Genetic Resource Products
  • Breeding Line Products




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